What are Exosomes?
In the context of our Exosome Therapy; Exosomesare extracellular vesicles, or small bubbles, released from cells, especially from stem cells. They act as shuttles for certain genetic information and proteins to other cells.
They allow for cell-to-cell communication, transporting molecules that are important regulators of intracellular information between close and distant cells. They carry information from place to place with different functions and purposes telling cells how and when to react.
Exosomes are being heralded as the next frontier of cell therapy. While not being cells at all, they play a vital role in the communication and rejuvenation of all the cells in our body. Science has shown that the cell-to cell communication is important in maintaining a healthy cellular function.
Age, chronic disease, environmental factors and genetic disorders can interfere with how our stem cells communicate with other cells, thus disrupting the healing process. Exosomes play a key role in the regulation of these communication processes.
What Is Exosome Therapy?
Research has given us a valuable insight into the practical functionality of exosomes. By exposing the cells of an older organism to those of a younger organism we can see that exosomes from the young stem cells are responsible for rejuvenating the older cells. This healing mechanism can now be used in regenerative medicine.
A degenerative disease comes from a continuous deterioration of cells, affecting tissues or organs. While stem cells are usually responsible for the rejuvenation of the cells, external factors may hinder the stem cells in this function. They may not be able to supply all the information needed.
Supporting cellular function with external exosomes could have a greater positive effect, by providing new pieces of information to support the healing process.
Exosomes insert needed information into the cell. The information is basically ‘This is what a healthy cell is like and this is how to get there”. This process happens in 2 stages. In the initial phase the exosome inserts into the cell a whole array of inflammation regulating proteins.
These basically quench the immediate inflammatory response. The exosomes also insert messenger RNA into the cell which is the recipe and instructions for the cell to make its own inflammation regulating substances.
Exosomes also contain regenerative information and enhance healthy cellular proliferation.